#IYPT2019 3: Lithium (Li)
Okay baby, we’re back with at it with lithium!
Lithium was first detected as an element by Swedish chemist Johann August Arfvedson in 1817 in petalite ore and was isolated in its pure form the next year by English chemist Humphry Davy.
Lithium is the first of the alkali metals (group I of the periodic table), and they get crazier the further down the group you go, so keep an eye out for sodium!
These so-called alkali metals react with water to produce hydrogen gas and the metal oxide which when dissolved in water, produce a very alkaline (basic) solution. eg Li + H2O -> H2 + LiOH
Since lithium is element number 3 right after helium, it is very light (only gases are lighter than it). This means it floats in pretty much all liquids so its usually stored in petroleum jelly.
Lithium is one of the main constituents in common batteries - probably including the one in your smartphone, laptop or whatever device you’re reading this from.
This is because lithium reacts to produce the most energy with water than any of the other alkali metals (li in a battery can produce a potential over more than 3V)
Its light weight also plays a role in this too!
So much so that it makes li useful in jets and missiles!
Also, burning Li produces a red flame, as shown in the second image!
Fun fact: lithium is the only metal that, under normal atmospheric conditions, will react with nitrogen in the air (to form lithium nitride)
Let me know what other elements you want me to cover in this series!
Image 1 adapted from Theodore Gray’s ‘The Elements’
In dieser Woche war der Text meiner Sketchnote Challenge der Frage: Warum gibt es Jahreszeiten zugeordnet. Die Grafik für die Frage aus dem Fragenheft von ProWissen Potsdam habe ich mit vier meiner Charaktere passend zu jeder Jahreszeit gestaltet. Der Finlae Text selbst schien beim Lesen jedoch sehr theoretisch. In der finalen Sketchnote wurde all das zum Glück sehr logisch 😊💪🏻 so soll es sein. Und anscheinend hat mich das milde Wetter hier vor Ort allein schon bei der Farbwahl angesteckt. 😅
It's Day 15 of #LTERlove! Welcome to the Kellogg Biological Station LTER Program, where researchers study the ecology of Midwest cropping systems & agricultural landscapes to learn how agriculture can provide both high yields and environmental outcomes that benefit society.
Here's some KBS LTER love:
"What I love about @KelloggBioStn is that it's RELEVANT. Almost 50% of US land area is agriculture! Research at KBS is helping us learn how we can manage these systems sustainably." -Julie Doll, Ed/Outreach specialist
LTER network researcher Merryl Alber, Dir. of UGA MarineSci, was so inspired by her visit to Kellogg LTER that she wrote a poem about it! Its called 'When I heard the learn’d agronomer' and you can read it here: bit.ly/learndagronomer
An important part of Kellogg is mentoring the next gen of scientists through their REU program. The research and education staff love to see undergrads gain confidence in conducting research, writing & giving presentations about their work.
Read more about the sustainable agriculture and ecological research, outreach, and education programs at KBS:
0 194 hours ago
My honours project is under way! Here is one of the beautiful velvet worms that will be part of my study! Look at that blue!
Meet our State Your Mission Challenge winners!!!! 👏👏👏 We had so many fantastic submissions - the decision was hard! Read our latest blog post to see the rationale. And remember: all who submitted a statement is AREADY a #scicomm winner!!! #scicommjc#phdchat
SCIENCE COMMUNICATION TIME! I've been inserting heart rate/temp sensors in Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) to research how they react to stress in different temperatures. This could help us better understand the effects of angling tournaments and how they recover from stress. In order to do this with as minimal pain and harm to the bass as possible, we have treated water running through the gills of the fish to anesthetize it. We make a small incision and suture the tag inside. After the specified measuring time, the tag is removed and sutured back up to heal. The fish heal very quickly and have all recovered wonderfully. I wanted to share this cause I am passionate about my research, these fish, and the experiences I am getting to have. #scicomm#lmb
Slide In The DM:
This is a Slider Turtle, scientifically known as Trachemys. They are considered invasive species, and provide valuable insight on urban conservation and ecosystems. We had an interesting seminar today given by a new PostDoc at @ucberkeleyofficial in our department (@espmberkeley ). Learned a lot! In many regions throughout California, this and the Western Pond turtle are the only turtles present. Often competing for space and quality of life. A recent study at UC Davis, removed all the Sliders from a habitat, to observe how native specie Western Ponds would react. This is one of the Slider Turtles removed. In total, 177 of them were removed and euthanized for research purposes. A difficult process for researchers, as it’s emotionally taxing. However, their presence has altered the native ecosystem. Once removed, even the water had noticeably became clearer. However, it’s difficult to correlate that with turtle removal. Other factors and dynamics are likely at play. Perhaps a new opportunity for research inquiry?! 🐢 💦 🧪 🧬 📸💯🏫
SOIL FEATURE FRIDAY #3 with Amanda Nims, Land Conservationist 🤘🌎🌱🤓🏔🌾
(MAKE SURE TO CHECK OUT PART 1 ON THE PROFILE! )
“In the US there are a number of tools to protect land. The strongest tool I’ve learned about in the 20 years I’ve devoted to this passion is the deed of conservation easement. A conservation easement is essentially an agreement between a landowner and a qualified organization that limits the development potential of the land in favor of protecting what’s most important about it: its wildlife habitat, agricultural soils, water, the beautiful scenery that everyone enjoys. By employing a conservation easement to conserve his or her private land, a landowner doesn’t necessarily agree to never develop, just to restrict it, and to plan for where the development activities will best be located.
What makes a conservation easement an effective tool to protect soil? A conservation easement is a deed that runs with the land, meaning every landowner from now into forever must abide by the terms of the easement. Because of the “forever” element of conservation easements, some folks don’t believe in them because they feel it ties the hands of future landowners with what they may do. While in some regards this is true, in other regards developing the land also ties the hands of the future. At the heart of it, protecting land with a conservation easement is an American private property right, a sacred and legal option that all people should fight to maintain, as it benefits everyone.
In addition to the good feelings a legacy of conservation may give a landowner who protects land with a conservation easement, there are significant financial benefits as well. Colorado is a national leader for conserving our private lands and there are groups like those in Colorado all across the country that can help private landowners permanently protect their soil and other natural resources.
I hope this Soil Science Fuck Yeah project will encourage all to look into these groups, and to support the landowners and the larger private land conservation movement that is helping conserve our great lands and waters for the future.
For the land,
I guess you can think of the theory of special relativity that way? 😂
9 5188 hours ago
PART 1: SOIL FEATURE FRIDAY #3 !
THIS WILL BE A 2 POST FEATURE 👏
Meet: Amanda Nims
Amanda has been working diligently for years to help others understand the importance and value of land conservation easements. You’ll be hearing a lot more from her, with more information to come as the year progresses! FUCK YEAH AMANDA 🤘
“My name is Amanda Nims and I am a professional Land Conservationist. I love soil because it is the foundation of our life here on Earth; nothing on land can live without soil; it’s something we all have in common. All humans, flora, fauna, everything on land: we all share the need for soil to survive. It connects us to the past and is critical for our future. It is more than just dirt- soil is life.
Soil holds us all together on this big planet of water. It provides us what we need to eat, regardless of our diet, and is the basis for our having clean water naturally. For these two reasons alone we should all respect and protect the land and its soil. But there are many other benefits to soil that are currently overlooked or taken for granted, and this is why I support the Soil Science Fuck Yeah movement!
My personal passion and professional efforts to protect the land stem from my earliest days growing up on a western New England farm in a valley known for some of the best soil in the country, if not the world. The deep, dark, velvety loam that nurtured thousands of years of humanity and wildlife before my family arrived spoke to me at an early age and has been an inspiration ever since.
My career started as a young woman working to protect the soil in my family’s back yard, then grew to professionally assist in the conservation of the farms, forests, and coastal lands of New England. I then moved to Colorado to work across this diverse and majestic state that I believe is the heart of America. This year I will have been in Colorado 9 years and could not be more humbled or honored to have the role I do in helping conserve the American West for future generations of all life. “ 🤘
*-CONTINUED ON FOLLOWING POST: PART 2-*
*ALL PICS BY AMANDA NIMS* music: @lakeyinspired
1 268 hours ago
Found a D. suzukii in the mix, the ovipositor is so cool!
4 129 hours ago
Drosophila subobscura sex combs
3 119 hours ago
The Green New Deal (GND) is a necessary step in the global fight against climate change. A lot of what is in it is based on trying to put into action the needs laid out by the UN Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5℃ (SR15) released last fall. So to understand why the GND is such a necessity it is good to have an overview of what is in SR15. .
The goal of the Paris Agreement is to hold the global average temperature increase to below 2℃ and to pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5℃, but we are way off track and running quite low on time to act if we are to meet these goals. .
The first image shows the path we are on currently in grey (4-5C of warming!), the path we will be on if each country's current pledge under the Paris Agreement is carried out in blue (more then 3C!), and the goals in yellow and green. The next image is what pathways to 1.5C look like as laid out in SR15. The last image shows what the temperature increase of each country's pledge would be- it is a good reflection of why we are currently on a 3+C path because it demonstrates which countries are slacking in their pledges.
If you want to read more about the details- why 1.5C matters, how climate justice is included within SR15, and more check out my new post on Medium (link in bio).
Image credits- Climate Action Tracker; IPCC SR15; Paris Equity Check
Did you know that many mammals have a penis bone, also known as a baculum?
Yes, you read that right: penis bone. As in a bone inside the penis.
The walrus has a particularly large one - see overly excited Ashley (I’m ~5ft/150cm tall) for scale
How do we create an atmosphere were students are free to learn, and free to grow? Wasn’t that the POINT of academia? I truly believe it was, and still is. But we must address the #fixedmindset phenomena in academia! 📚💻📝 Because let’s face it, LEARNING IS FUN!
To learn more about the growth and fixed mindset, coined by Carol Dweck at Stanford University— check our her book “Mindset”.
My first IGTV video, check my profile out for the full version!
6 369 hours ago
It’s been a whirlwind of a week 🌪
From formally starting the course, to meeting my co-supervisor and expanding my project, to writing and attending seminars, it has been hectic ▫️
I haven’t been in the lab for over a week, so I’m having some withdrawals. I’ve got one more week of heavy writing 🖊 left to do, then I can look at getting this some experiments started
2 2110 hours ago
DNA Video Tutorial, created with Adobe Animate, Premiere Pro, and Audition.
🎥 🎥 🎥 ————————————-
I realized that I haven’t shared any of my work for Macmillan Publishing in a very long time. Macmillan is by far my biggest client and basically keeps me busy as many hours a week as I want. A pretty sweet deal for a freelancer. I also tend to get the more interesting assignments because I can write, illustrate, Animate, etc.
🎥 🎥 🎥 ————————————-
This clip (sorry for the subpar audio) is from a series of biochemistry video tutorials that support Macmillan’s biochemistry textbooks.
🎥 🎥 🎥 ————————————-
I’ll admit the animation is a bit dull. I would love to make the animation a lot more interesting, but it’s just not possible within their budget.
Lignocaine is a rapidly-acting local anaesthetic, which can be administered by various routes. It is also used as an anti arrhythmic. Other uses include cough suppression (when inhaled), treatment of neonatal seizures and pain relief for gastritis (taken orally). Lignocaine works by causing prolonged inhibition of sodium channels, which blocks signal transduction in nerve cells. At a low dose, lignocaine is relatively selective for the types of sensory neurons it will inhibit, but higher doses sacrifice this selectivity, causing more ubiquitous effects.
This selectivity makes lignocaine useful in treating ventricular arrhythmias, as select sodium channels in the heart muscle will be inhibited, which increases the depolarisation threshold. This reduces the chance of the heart initiating action potentials too early.
Lignocaine has a rapid onset of action, and depending on the route of administration it can be effective in just a few minutes, with effects lasting several hours. It is almost entirely metabolised by the liver, and is excreted in the urine.
Side effects are numerous (though serious effects are uncommon) and may include anxiety, drowsiness and bradycardia, as well as itching at the administration site. Overdose of lignocaine can cause respiratory depression, apnea and loss of consciousness.
Lignocaine may interact with several drugs, and is contraindicated in patients taking other anti arrhythmic drugs or liposomal opioids. Several cardiovascular and genetic conditions are contraindicated for its use, including heart blocks.
Lignocaine is on the WHO’s List of Essential Medicines.
5 5610 hours ago
making new incredible minded friends is one of the best parts of going to conferences
2 2410 hours ago
You are the only antidote for your own toxicity.....Treat yourself to save others! #WHPUpToMe
In this image: Healthy hepatocyte is looking at a toxic diseased hepatocyte.
Plan ahead for detours! ⛔️The DNA roads towards recombinant protein expression can be SLIC, but you can plan ahead to easily change course! Some proteins don’t want to take the easy road (bacterial expression) so we design our SITE & LIGATION INDEPENDENT CLONING (SLIC) cloning systems to be as “generic” as possible so that we can relatively easily switch between bacterial & insect cell expression systems if need be.
A LOT of #biochemistry, & science in general, is trial & error. And if you’re gonna try & potentially err, you’d prefer those trials to be relatively easy & the errors to be relatively cheap. So if there are multiple ways to do something, it often makes sense to 1st try the cheaper, easier thing. This is often the case with RECOMBINANT PROTEIN EXPRESSION - this is where we use MOLECULAR CLONING you take a gene from one place and stick it into a small circular piece of DNA called a PLASMID VECTOR -> stick that into expression cells to use the gene’s instructions to make that protein -> get lots of protein you can purify & study.
There are different types of expression cells you can use, but bacteria are cheapest and easiest. But they also don’t have a lot of the proper machinery for making more complex proteins, so you often need to use insect cells or even mammalian cells. Bacterial expression can save you time & money in the expression phase, but if it doesn’t work you’ll loose some money in the cloning phase and our goal is to minimize this loss.
Note: sorry in advance for going back-and-forth between “plasmid” & “vector” - a vector is a “vehicle” for transporting your gene into the cells & this vehicle can be a plasmid, but not necessarily. We often think of vectors as the “generic part” of the plasmid and when you add in your gene you get a unique “plasmid” but I tend to use the terms interchangeably. Anyways…
Before you can get that plasmid into the cells you choose, you have to get your gene into that plasmid. The “classic” way to do this is the “cut & paste” with RESTRICTION ENZYMES (aka restriction endonucleases) - PART 2 👇
This is a cleaner shrimp (Periclimines sarasvati). Cleaner shrimp are often found living on coral, sponges, or anemones. Their see-through bodies allow them to blend in with their homes and avoid detection by predators. However, this can make it difficult for their food sources to find them. That's because cleaner shrimp eat the parasites and dead skin off of fish. So fish will seek out these shrimp when they need some help getting cleaned up. The relationship fish and cleaner shrimp have is called mutualism; a relationship that both organisms benefit from. To help fish locate them, the shrimp advertise their services by waving their antennae to get their attention. Some studies have also shown that fish will use coral heads and anemones as visual cues to find the shrimp. Sometimes cleaner shrimp will even treat drivers to a quick manicure!
2 7311 hours ago
Gracias a la Academia Nacional de las Ciencias de Costa Rica por invitarme esta semana a hablar con los estudiantes del Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica sede San Carlos y el Colegio Científico. Fue un honor contarles sobre mi experiencia en la ciencia y fomentando las vocaciones científicas en los jóvenes, especialmente niñas y mujeres por la celebración estas semana del Día Internacional de la Niña y la Mujer en la Ciencia. Me encantó conocer su lindisimo campus y a los talentosos estudiantes!
Thanks to the National Academy of Sciences for inviting me to talk this week to students at the Technological Institute of Costa Rica and the Cientific High School. It was an honor to share some of my experiences doing science and fostering scientific vocation in young people, especially girls and women with this week's celebration of the International Day of Girls and Women in Science! I loved getting to visit this beautiful campus and getting to know those talented students!
Giovanna Guerrero Medina, como panelista en #aaasmtg, habló acerca de los esfuerzos que realizó Ciencia Puerto Rico para preservar la independencia del Instituto de Estadísticas de #PuertoRico y de la creación de PR-SPAN. Pulsa el enlace en nuestro bio para que conozcas más de PR-SPAN y de cómo involucrarte.
Today is International Day of Women and Girls in Science 👩🏫
"I certainly think that women though generally superior to men to moral qualities are inferior intellectually; & there seems to me to be a great difficulty from the laws of inheritance, if I understand these laws rightly) in their becoming the intellectual equals of man. On the other hand there is some reason to believe that aboriginally (& to the present day in the case of Savages) men & women were equal in this respect, & this greatly favour their recovering this equality. But to do this, as I believe, women must become as regular "bread-winners" as are men; & we may suspect that the early education of our children, not to mention the happiness of our homes, would in this case greatly suffer."
This was what Darwin replied to Caroline Kennard, when she asked him about claims of women intellectual inferiority based on one of his books. When I read this paragraph in the book "Inferior" (by Angela Saini) I was very angry. I always admired Darwin's work and how he was able to look at what so many people have seen before with another perspective and come up with a beautiful explanation for it. The answer for life.
I didn't know that he would have probably objected to me being in science today. However, this was in the 1800, so he was just a man of his time. But unfortunately, 200 years later, there are still too many men that have the same opinion. These men are everywhere and they act against equality, due the fear of loosing their power, basing their claims on science.
Women are not less intelligent nor less interested in science. Society (backed by these men) have created this myth. And although the landscape of women in STEM is getting better, only 30% of researchers are women. With less educated women, men have the power to decide for both.
But it's time to stop this. Let's educate women. Let's give them proper role models and less self consciousness. Let's stop men from deciding for us what to do with our bodies. Let's support them and help them rise to be the leaders of tomorrow. We do not want a seat at the table, we want the same amount of seats as men have.
60 29954 days ago
Meditation & self-care away from the lab ☀️ Recently I’ve been trying to meditate daily before bed as a way to de-stress 🧘🏻♀️ I’ve found it helps to reduce my work-related anxiety and it helps me to mentally detach from the lab 📑 Academia will always be stressful and there will always be way too much work to do with too little time, but at least I can deal with it all a little better now.