ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
The electron transport chain (ETC) is part of the grand finale to cellular respiration. For background to previous steps, see my latest posts.
The ETC is a collection of membrane-embedded proteins and organic molecules, most of them organized into four large complexes. Many copies of these molecules are found in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
As electrons travel through the chain, they go from a higher to a lower energy level, moving from less electronegative to more electronegative molecules. Energy is released in these electron transfers, and several of the protein complexes use the released energy to pump protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space, forming a proton gradient.
Beyond the first two complexes, electrons from NADH and FADH2 travel exactly the same route. Both complex I and complex II pass their electrons to a small, mobile electron carrier called ubiquinone (Q), which is reduced and travels through the membrane, delivering the electrons to complex III. As electrons move through complex III, more H+ ions are pumped across the membrane, and the electrons are ultimately delivered to another mobile carrier called cytochrome C (cyt C). Cyt C carries the electrons to complex IV, where a final H+ ions is pumped across the membrane. Complex IV passes the electrons to O2, which splits into two oxygen atoms and accepts protons from the matrix to form H2O. Four electrons are required to reduce each molecule of O2 , and two water molecules are formed in the process.
At the end of it all, cellular respiration produces 30-34 molecules of ATP for the cell to use for all metabolic processes that require energy.
As the core technology found in the @anteageskin skin care system, the Bone Marrow Stem Cell Growth Factors & Cytokines are a powerful tool used to achieve a variety of clinical aesthetic objectives. But, what are they exactly? These are essentially protein messenger molecules that all cells in the body (except for red blood cells and corneocytes) use to literally communicate with one another. I like to say that there’s a symphony of communication happening 24/7 inside the body, and in your skin. The cells can produce hundreds of these biological signals, each one genetically coded to deliver a specific “message” to the neighboring cells. What’s important to remember is that each cell type produces a vastly different portfolio of these proteins! They are not created equally. For instance, some competitors use Adipose (Fat) Stem Cells to harvest these proteins from. These are definitively inflammatory. We use the Bone Marrow Stem Cell to harvest them from, which produces a pattern of proteins that are pro-healing, regenerative, and ANTI-INFLAMMATORY. When you apply these to the skin (make sure they’re wrapped in nano lipid carriers for adequate penetration) you are flooding the area with the message of regenerative, anti-inflammatory healing. This is EXACTLY what you want on all skin types and conditions. When you use the right growth factors and cytokines in your skin care, they optimize and potentiate the performance of all the other actives in your products. Powerful stuff! Science lesson of the day complete. 🤓 #skincare#skincareexpert#science#antiinflammatory#dermatology#esthetics#igers#bestoftheday#medicalesthetics#antiaging#stemcells#growthfactors#cytokines#healthyskin#cellularbiology#molecularbiology#beauty#research#dontusefat#beautyprofessional#cosmeticchemistry#education
The deep fissures and wrinkles of this lophophora williamsii var caespitosa are as elegant to me as the shape of a woman's body and the intellect and passion of her mind. The topography of the cactus surface is endlessly beautiful and reminds me near daily one of the many reasons why I grow these plants. Getting to see and be around them daily and also feel or know the history you share with them over the years all comes together like a psychedelic experience in a way that cannot easily be put into words and for sure not accurately. The process of growing cacti for years compounds on itself. Each new year there are more memories shared with the plant and more meaning behind your keeping and growing it.
There's something very special about them not just being seasonally grown and then replanted every year like cannabis or produce crops or even mushrooms. There is no immediate gratification or near immediate gratification like there is with shrooms growing and cannabis. You arnt just thinking about the next 2 or 3 or 6 months. With cacti we are thinking whole seasons, whole years, and whole decades ahead because the same plant we buy today has to make it 30 or 100 years down the road and we have to adopt practices that reflect this if we want out cacti to outlive us.
I for sure want mine to outlive me. My passion and legacy will be cacti. Hopefully my children will see their need and continue what I start. I also want them to happily do their own thing. Hopefully that involves continuing what I started. #lophophora#environment#truth#botany#plantscience#mycology#microbiology#microbes#tissueculture#chimera#cellularbiology#cellularecology#epigenetic#epigenetics#genetics#lophophora#trichocereus#trippy#mothernature#motherearth#horticulture#biology#passion#passionate#flowerpower#flowerchild#cactus#garden#gardening
Named after the Hans Krebs and the next step in cellular respiration, following glycolysis, is the Krebs cycle. Other names for it are the citric acid cycle and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Whatever you decide to call it, it is the central deliverer of cellular respiration.
In the first step of the cycle, acetyl
CoA (produced by glycolysis - see previous post) combines with a four-carbon acceptor molecule, to form a six-carbon molecule called citrate. After rearrangement, this six-carbon molecule releases two of its carbons as CO2 molecules in a pair of similar reactions, producing a molecule of NADH each time. The enzymes that catalyze these reactions are key regulators of the Krebs cycle, speeding it up or slowing it down based on the cell’s energy needs.
The remaining four-carbon molecule undergoes a series of additional reactions, first making an ATP molecule - then reducing the electron carrier FADH2, and finally generating another NADH. This set of reactions regenerates the starting molecule, oxaloacetate, so the cycle can repeat.
One turn of the citric acid cycle releases two CO2 molecules and produces three NADH, one FADH2, and one ATP. The Krebs cycle goes around twice for each molecule of glucose that enters cellular respiration because there are two pyruvates - and thus, two acetyl CoAs made per glucose.
Does anyone else think F-12 media is very pretty 😍. I’m using this media to grow up some HT-1080 cells to play with in chemotaxi experiments. HT-1080 is a fibrosarcoma cell which are known to be very evasive, making them a perfect model cell for migration assays.
Scientific advancement can be slow, but this has not been the case for Gene Editing 🚀
CRISPR-Cas9 has shown immense promise in treating and modifying plant, animal, & bacteria biology for the past 7 years. Though a new protein, CasX, was discovered 2 years ago by UC Berkeley researchers Banfield and Doudna.
CasX is found in some of the smallest bacteria on Earth and is thus one of the smallest Cas proteins. This is advantageous for delivery into a cell. CasX's bacteria is also not found in humans, meaning the protein is more readily accepted by the human immune system.
Now, perhaps more reliably than ever, we can engineer biology in a range of different ways. CasX can target specific DNA sequences, cut double-stranded DNA like Cas9, and bind to DNA to regulate genes.
A huge thank you and credit to @crispr.daily 🔬
5 4833:57 PM Feb 13, 2019
a) Stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors by epinephrine activates phospholipase C to hydrolyzed phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate
(PIP2) to inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). b) The
participation of two second messenger
systems: the cAMP-mediated stimulation
of glycogenolysis and inhibition of
glycogen synthesis triggered by glucagon
and beta-adrenergic receptor activation; and
the IP3, DAG, and Ca2+-mediated stimulation of glycogenolysis and inhibition of glycogen synthesis triggered
by alpha-adrenergic receptor activation. IP3
stimulates the release of Ca2+ from the
endoplasmic reticulum, whereas DAG,
together with Ca2, activates protein kinase C to phosphorylate and thereby inactivate glycogen synthase. G6Pase occupies the endoplasmic reticulum.
Consequently, the cytosolically produced
G6P is transported into the endoplasmic
reticulum via the T1 G6P translocase,
where it is hydrolyzed to glucose and Pi.
The Pi and glucose are then returned to
the cytosol by the T2 and T3 transporters,
respectively, and the glucose is exported
from the cell via the GLUT2 glucose
Source: Voet D. & Voet J.G. Biochemistry. 4th Editon. John Wiley & Son, 2011
Happy #internationalwomeninscienceday to all my fellow lab ladies. In addition to drawing science art, my first passion is science.
I’m a PhD student @hsnsudbury research institute. My project is focused on a novel compound we discovered. I have found that our compound has anti-inflammatory capabilities and demonstrates great potential to treat autoimmune conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Now that I have determined it’s capabilities, I must unravel its mechanism 👩🏼🔬🔬🧪
3 748:51 PM Feb 11, 2019
a) FAS from S. cerevisiae possesses two trimeric reaction chambers
separated by equatorial stabilizing struts. ACP domains are located at the equatorial base of each reaction chamber, close to the catalytic site of KS.
equatorial base of this structure is an 6 trimer of dimers, with alternating KS and
KR domains. The central stabilizing struts are alpha-helical extensions of the functional domains arranged around the outside of the ring. A central six-helix bundle
stabilizes the structure.
c) The ACP domains (red) are tethered on flexible linkers (yellow) so that they can move from one active site to the next in the catalytic
cycle. Comparison of the ACP domains of S. cerevisiae and E. coli reveals that the
ACP domains probably extend the acyl-phosphopantetheine group to active
sites but then retract the acyl group into a hydrophobic cleft while moving from
one site to the next (images courtesy of Marc Leibundgut and
Nenad Ban, ETH [Zurich]). #biochemistry#biochem#bioquimica#medicalscience#biomedicalscience#cellbiology#cellularbiology#molecularbiology#metabolicpathways#mcat#mcatprep#mcat2019#mcatstudying#biologyaddicts#biologylovers#biochemistrystudent#biologystudent#biologystudents#biologyteacher
Source: Garrett R.H., Grisham C.M. Biochemistry. 4th Edition. Brooks/Cole, Cengage learning, 2010
4 5257:48 PM Feb 11, 2019
Not to mention two distinct halves of a brain that are literally able to lie to one another
What is autism?
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex developmental disability; signs typically appear during early childhood and affect a person’s ability to communicate, and interact with others. ASD is defined by a certain set of behaviors and is a “spectrum condition” that affects individuals differently and to varying degrees. There is no known single cause of autism, but increased awareness and early diagnosis/intervention and access to appropriate services/supports lead to significantly improved outcomes. Some of the behaviors associated with autism include delayed learning of language; difficulty making eye contact or holding a conversation; difficulty with executive functioning, which relates to reasoning and planning; narrow, intense interests; poor motor skills’ and sensory sensitivities. Again, a person on the spectrum might follow many of these behaviors or just a few, or many others besides. The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder is applied based on analysis of all behaviors and their severity.
For more information about autism watch this:
Kuru is a rare and fatal nervous system disease. Its highest prevalence occurred during the 1950's among the Fore people in the highlands of New Guinea. The Fore people contracted this disease by performing cannibalism on corpses during funeral rituals. Kuru means "to shiver" or "trembling in fear". The symptoms of the disease include muscle twitching, loss of coordination, difficulty walking, involuntary movements, behavioral and mood changes, dementia, and difficulty eating. Kuru has no known cure and is usually fatal within one year of contraction.
The identification & study of Kuru has helped scientific research, as it was the first neurodegenerative disease resulting from an infectious agent. Though the tribe stopped practicing cannibalism in the late 50's (leading to a decline in Kuru), the disease continued to appear to appear for decades because it can take years to show. More recently, researchers discovered that some of the people who survived the Kuru epidemic carry a genetic mutation called V127, whereas those who developed Kuru didn't have this mutation. Researchers suspect that V127 conferred protection against the disease. This discovery leads them to be hopefully in finding cure for diseases like Cruetzfield Jakobs, fatal familia insomnia and other fatal and other prion diseases.
Sources: amp.livescience, healthline, thediseasesymptoms, slideplayers.
Spent the day in this hood with the “wound maker” which can create scratch wounds in a 96-well format, all at once. Then after scratching the cells in the wells, I can treat them with various drugs to determine their efficacy at altering migration. Very excited to get some more data from these experiments 🤓
Here’s my one of my videos from yesterday’s scratch wound experiment 🤓🧪
The scratch-wound assay is an assay commonly used to measure cell migration. Cells are grown to confluence and a thin "wound" is introduced by scratching with a pipette tip or a wound-maker. .
Cells at the wound edge polarise and migrate into the wound space. Images are captured at the beginning and at regular intervals during cell migration to close the scratch. The images are then compared to quantify the migration rate of the cells.
3 9911:48 PM Feb 6, 2019
Trying to be calm while studying and not let my anxiety take over. Hence, my roommate’s zen garden 🤗 plus her salt lamps 🌸🌸 providing a calm studying atmosphere 🌻🌻
There will be lots more posts of this egg and sperm piece in the near future! It is going to be my primary stitching project til I'm finished - I want my first larger hoop complete so I can go on and try more!
Beautiful light this morning too 😊